A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye and can develop in one or both eyes. The lens is normally clear and sits behind the iris – the coloured part of the eye. The lens helps focus light to produce a sharp image on to the retina at the back of the eye and changes shape to allow you to see close objects. A cataract acts like a frosted glass coating that scatters light, causing blurring and lack of clarity.
What are the symptoms of Cataracts?
Cataracts are painless and usually cause a gradual worsening of sight. The main symptoms are: Blurring: Your vision may become misty or blurry so that you cannot see details at a distance, or your glasses seem scratched and dirty. Dazzled by lights: You may find that you have poor vision in bright light, suffer from glare, and that bright lights such as car headlights are more blinding than usual. Double vision: You may start to notice double vision for either close or distance objects. Changes in colour vision: You may notice that colours appear faded or washed out. We recommend that you have an eye test every two years, unless your Optometrist advises otherwise.


Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the thin layer that covers the white of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It can affect one or both eyes, causing discomfort. The causes of conjunctivitis can be bacterial, viral, allergic or from another source. If you have mild symptoms of discomfort, a red eye and some white/yellow/green discharge, you can usually treat it with over the counter antibiotics from your pharmacist. Any pain or severe redness or inflammation should be checked out by your GP immediately. Conjunctivitis can be very contagious, so ensure you wash your hands thoroughly after touching your face and try not to share towels and face-cloths.


Astigmatism is the optical term for more than one point of focus. It occurs when the surface of the cornea or crystalline lens is not spherical. Light from an object does not focus exactly on the retina but at two separate points. An astigmatic eye has curves that are steeper in one direction than the other. An example of this could be where the cornea is not spherical and shaped more like a rugby ball than football - of course this is not noticeable by just looking at someone's eyes. As a result, the eye is unable to focus a point or object into a sharp focused image on the retina. There are two types of astigmatism, regular and irregular. Irregular astigmatism is often caused by a corneal scar or scattering in the crystalline lens and cannot be corrected by standard prescription lenses, but may be corrected by contact lenses or mild astigmatisms can be treated by laser eye surgery. Regular astigmatism arising from either the cornea or crystalline lens can be corrected by a toric lens.


Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that affect the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. It often affects both eyes, usually to varying degrees. In England and Wales, it’s estimated more than 600,000 people have glaucoma but many more people may not know they have the condition.


If you have diabetes, your eyes are at risk of damage from diabetic retinopathy, which can lead to sight loss if it's not treated. Eye screening is a key part of your diabetes care. In its early stages, diabetic retinopathy does not usually cause any noticeable symptoms, so you may not even know you have it. But screening can detect the condition before you notice any changes to your vision. If it is detected early enough, management of the condition can stop it getting worse. Otherwise, by the time symptoms become noticeable, it can be much more difficult to treat.


If you have soft or semisolid yellowish spots on your eyelids, they may be cholesterol deposits. These deposits are also known as xanthelasma. Your doctor will want to know when you first noticed the yellow spots and whether they’ve changed since you noticed them. They may be able to make a diagnosis from a visual exam because xanthelasma have a distinctive appearance.

Blood Pressure

When you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor may wish to examine your eyes or refer you to a specialist clinic. A simple test can look at the small blood vessels in the back of your eye, to check if any damage has been done by high blood pressure. Looking at the back of the eye reveals whether or not your small blood vessels (caplliaries) have thickened, narrowed or burst

Tumours & Neavi

Tumours in the eye principally occur in the middle layer and inner layers of the eye. The middle layer consists of the uveal tract: iris, ciliary body and choroid; the inner layer of the retina and optic nerve. The outer layer (cornea and sclera) is more prone to infections and degenerative disorders than to tumour.